Archive for Vol. 7, 2016

Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

by Sven Junghagen, Simon D. Besjakov & Anders A. Lund

Vol. 7 2016, pages 89–117
Published October 5, 2016


The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods, studying two clubs: Malmö FF in Sweden and FC København in Denmark. In order for the subject clubs to increase the attendance frequency of the spectators, these must be moved towards a higher level of the Psychological Continuum Model. The quantitative phase was comprised of a survey distributed at three separate occasions for each of the subject clubs. Four segments were identified to be of particular interest, two from each of the subject clubs. The two segments defined for Malmö FF were termed Entertainment Seeking Families and the Price Conscious Group of Friends. The two segments defined for FCK were termed Price Sensitive Experience Hunters and Family Focused Fans. It is shown how the two clubs can provide tailored experiences specifically designed towards the identified attendant segments. In doing so, an increased range of psychological associations will be created in the minds of the attendants, thus strengthening the psychological connection, increasing the likelihood of upwards movement in the psychological continuum and rate of attendance.

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About the Authors

SVEN JUNGHAGEN is Associate Professor at the Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark; and Visiting Scholar at the Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University, Sweden. His research addresses strategic management and marketing in, of, and through sport. His primary empirical field of study is professional football clubs in different commercial contexts.

SIMON BESJAKOV holds a MSc degree in Economics and Business Administration with a concentration in International Marketing & Management from Copenhagen Business School. His research interests lie in the financial and managerial implications in managing sports organizations in their sociological setting.

ANDERS LUND holds a MSc degree in Economics and Business Administration from Copenhagen Business School. His primary research interests lie in understanding how sociological theories can be applied in marketing sports organizations and the effects of this on financial performance.

The Publishing Game: The dubious mission of evaluating research and measuring performance in a cross-disciplinary field

by Ulrik Wagner

Vol. 7 2016, pages 63–88
Published May 18, 2016


Sport is a cross-disciplinary research field in which, similar to other fields, the axiom publish or perish dominates. Despite differences in scientific publishing cultures, researchers of a cross-disciplinary spectrum like sport science are often subjected to a single performance measurement regime. By using Denmark as a case, this paper critically examines how scientific contributions are validated and evaluated, and subsequently how academic performance is measured and ranked in a cross-disciplinary research field. Drawing on critical realism, the claim is that the interplay between national performance indicators, multiple stakeholders and certain journals’ editorial practices within the sport sciences undermine peer reviewing as our core procedure to ensure high academic quality standards. By emphasizing the fight for research autonomy and rather than rejecting peer reviewing per se, proposals for an extended reviewing practice and quality criteria that goes beyond ranking systems are suggested.

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About the Author

ULRIK WAGNER is Associate Professor at the Department of Marketing and Management, University of Southern Denmark. His research is addressing international anti-doping efforts, sport scandals and sponsorships from a perspective of organizational sociology and critical management. He teaches courses in topics related to sport and event management, and furthermore he is engaged in organizing the annual PhD seminar prior to the conference of the European Association for Sport Management (EASM). Together with Klaus Nielsen and Rasmus Storm he is the co-editor of the book When sport meets business – Capabilities, Challenges, Critiques (SAGE) which will appear in October, 2016.

The Janus-faced relationship value of professional sports clubs: A study of Molde Football Club, Norway

by Harald Dolles, Hallgeir Gammelsæter, Oskar Solenes & Solveig Straume

Vol. 7 2016, pages 47–61
Published May 9, 2016


Professional sport clubs can be analyzed according to the extent their offers affect the community and the individual. The “use value” takes into account the individual benefits of watching a sporting competition, whereas the “non-use” reflects the externalities of a sports club and its sports events towards people not particular interested in the sport in question. Both values are commonly investigated within the local context, however in an explorative study of the Norwegian football club Molde FK, a sample of 29 young people that had taken up residence in a different part of the country from where they grew up was analyzed in order to find out what “relationship” value a sports club from their home town still has in their lives. Despite the fact that the sample turned out to contain very few passionate football fans, it also revealed that Molde FK still is present in the lives of non-football fans. We conclude that the football club functions as a frequent reminder of the hometown for people that have migrated, and thus, the non-use value might extend beyond the individual’s (lack of) interest for football. Further, the football club and its activities serve at the same time as a foundation for conversations that might support migrators to extend and to build up social capital at their new location.

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About the Authors

HARALD DOLLES IS Professor in Sport Management at Molde University College – Specialized University in Logistics. He also is part-time affiliated with the University of Gothenburg (Sweden), where he holds a Professorship in International Business at the School of Business, Economics and Law. Harald frequently contributes to scientific development in the fields of international business, Asian studies and sports management. Among others he serves as European Editor for Sport, Business and Management and acts as Chair of the European Academy of Management (EURAM) strategic interest group (SIG) on ‘Managing Sport’.

HALLGEIR GAMMELSÆTER is Professor in Social Change, Organization and Management at Molde University College – Specialized University in Logistics. His current research focus is sport and event management, and he has engaged heavily in European Sport Management Association, in the board, as Scientific Chair and currently as associate editor in European Sport Management Quarterly. He has published several articles on sport management in international journals and edited ‘The Organisation of Top Football Across Europe’ (Routledge, 2011).

OSKAR SOLENES is Associated Professor in Sport Management and Dean at the Faculty of Business Administration and Social Sciences at Molde University College – Specialized University in Logistics, Norway. He holds a PhD in sport history, studying the development of organized sport for children during the 20th century. His research interest are especially connected to the social cultural values of sport in general, as well as voluntarism and the organizing of children’s and youth sport in special.

SOLVEIG STRAUME is Associate Professor in Sport Management at Molde University College – Specialized University in Logistics. Her research focus is Sport for Development and Peace, where she has particularly examined sport policy and development in Africa. Her work have been published in a variety of journals such as International Journal of Sport Policy and PoliticsSport in Society and The International Journal of the History of Sport.

The framing of orthorexia nervosa in Swedish daily newspapers: A longitudinal qualitative content analysis

by Linn Håman, Natalie Barker-Ruchti, Göran PatrikssonEva-Carin Lindgren

Vol. 7 2016, pages 27–46
Published March 30, 2016


This study explored and elucidated how orthorexia is framed in Swedish daily newspapers with a focus on characteristics of orthorexia. Key questions include: 1) how do the newspaper articles connect exercise with orthorexia? and 2) what trends in depicting exercise in relation to orthorexia do the newspaper articles represent over time? The method used was a longitudinal qualitative content analysis guided by the framing theory. We analyzed 166 articles published between 1998 and 2013. Our analysis revealed that orthorexia originally was framed as an eating disorder and subsequently included unhealthy exercise. Two trend shifts could be identified: in 2004, exercise was added as an element and in 2013 extreme exercise trends were described to influence the increase of orthorexia. The findings indicate that Swedish newspapers extend Bratman’s definition and depict orthorexia indiscriminately to describe a range of different behavioral characteristics. These results are discussed in terms of the idea of “healthism” and general health trends in society.

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About the Authors

LINN HÅMAN is a lecturer at School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Sweden. She received her PhD in 2016 with the thesis “Extreme pursuit of health: An explorative study of orthorexia nervosa”. Her dissertation deals with how orthorexia nervosa is described, understood and reported. Current research interests concern personal trainers’ view of healthy/unhealthy practices in the fitness gym.

NATALIE BARKER-RUCHTI is Associate Professor in Sports Coaching at the Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science at the University of Gothenburg. Her research interests lie in understanding how sport coaches and coaching affect athlete learning, identity and wellbeing, in particular in high-performance settings. Critical sociology is important to her and in a project linking sport and adolescents with immigration backgrounds, she has employed the concept of healthism.

GÖRAN PATRIKSSON is professor at the Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He has carried out a large amount of research in the sport area for more than forty years. Among the topics covered are studies of socialisation into, through and out of youth sports. He has conducted several investigations of physical education (PE) teaching in Sweden and other countries in and outside of Europe. Another interest concerns careers in elite sports, especially career endings. Göran has done many evaluations of large governmental projects aiming to increase physical activity among children and young people.

EVA-CARIN LINDGREN is Associate Professor at the Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. She has conducted both qualitative and intervention studies in the areas of health promotion (physical activity, body and empowerment) in school settings and sports. Her current research interests also focus on how coaches express their construction of children’s team sports and how children talk about sport from a child’s perspective, how sport clubs and coaches maximise participation of children and youths from an intersectional perspective, and the learning and career paths of top-level female football coaches.

Teachers’ Learning Experiences with the Sport Education Model in Physical Education

by Jan-Erik Romar, John Henriksson, Kent Ketomäki & Peter Hastie

Vol. 7 2016, pages 1–26
Published March 14, 2016


Sport Education is proposed as an instructional model addressing concerns regarding traditional approaches to teaching physical education. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the reflective accounts of cohort of in-service physical education teachers after learning about, and teaching, a season of Sport Education. Four female elementary and middle school physical education teachers participated in a professional development course organized by the university and the course focused on implementing instructional models. Data were gathered from interviews with the teachers and analyzed using inductive constant comparison. The teachers reported that the Sport Education model required more planning and preparation than traditional teaching and that they were more supervising and helping than teaching. All teachers adjusted the Sport Education model according to their own understanding, the context and the group. All teachers perceived that the students were actively engaged, cooperated and learned new skills. The study showed that regular physical education teachers can through professional development effectively implement a novel curriculum model.

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About the Authors

JAN-ERIK ROMAR is an Associate Professor in Sport Pedagogy at the Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Finland. At the moment he holds a position as senior lecturer at Umeå University. His research interests include teacher education and professional development as well as teaching and learning in physical education including model based instruction. He is on the editorial board of “Journal for Research in Arts and Sports Education”

JOHN HENRIKSSON is a classroom teacher in Solf skola, Korsholm, Finland. He has a Master’s degree in Education from 2014 and is also qualified to teach physical education and health education in elementary and middle school in Finland. At the moment he has his own class of sixth graders and teaches also four physical education lessons per week to other groups in his school.

KENT KETOMÄKI is a classroom teacher in Vanhan Vaasan koulu, Vasa, Finland. This year he teaches most subjects in his fourth grade class but also sloyd to boys in third and fourth grade. He graduated two years ago with a Master’s degree in Education and is also qualified to teach physical education and health education in elementary and middle school in Finland. He teaches three physical education lessons per week to his own class.

PETER HASTIE is a Wayne T. Smith Distinguished Professor in the School of Kinesiology at Auburn University in the United States. His area of specialty is Sport Education, having written numerous research papers and books examining the model. Professor Hastie is co-editor of the journal “Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy”, and is on the editorial board of a number of journals including the “Journal of Teaching in Physical Education”.