Archive for Vol. 9, 2018

Sport for adults: Using frame factor theory to investigate the significance of local sports instructors for a new Sport for All programme in Sweden

by Anna RenströmStaffan Karp

Vol. 9 2018, pages 87–109
Published November 21, 2018


In Europe, Sport for All includes increasing adults’ physical activity levels. Drawing on frame factor theory, this article examined the establishment of a sports programme offering recreational and fitness activities for adults within the Swedish Sports Confederation. Data from eight interviews with local sports instructors were analysed to investigate the content of activities for adults and how and why the instructors carried out these activities. The main finding is that sports as fitness and recreation activities for adults are carried out by the instructors within three patterns: participatory, mediation, and continuous. There is a ‘logic of enabling’ that emerges from these patterns: the instructors strive to make it possible for adults to practise sport for fitness and recreational purposes through a range of adjustments. However, the cues for the instructors regarding how to carry out a practice for adults are vague. The results also show that these groups for adults will only be offered as long as the resources for the traditional elite groups and groups for children and youth are not at risk.

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About the Authors

ANNA RENSTRÖM has master degrees in both sport education and science journalism. She has been teaching education, sport education and sport pedagogy at the Department of Education, Umeå University. Currently, being a PhD student, her research revolves talent development and learning processes within elite sport contexts.

STAFFAN KARP is an Associate Professor in pedagogy at Umeå University. Since the mid-1990s, he has been interested in fostering and socialisation processes in organised children and youth sports, and in the 2000s he also studied change and resistance to change in the sports movement as a system.

Ideellt arbete och föreningsdemokrati: Det demokratiska ledarskapets krav och utmaningar i IF Stoor – en fallstudie

by Jonny Hjelm

Vol. 9 2018, pages 45–85
Published May 14, 2018


Sport management and democracy.
Demands and challenges of leadership in a multi-sport club

In this case study, decision-making processes in the sport club ‘IF Stoor’ are analysed with a focus on so called voluntary “key actors” and their involvement in formal and informal decision-making processes. The aim of the study is to provide knowledge about how eleven key actors in a large sport club like IF Stoor – with approximately 3,000 members, many organisational levels but relatively few members involved in the formal decision-making bodies – acted and handled democratic claims and at the same time tried to secure the voluntary based sport production. The analysis shows that the key actors were involved continually in the club’s two parallel decision-making processes. There were formal decision-making bodies with statutes-directed processes which strengthened the club’s organization and economy. There were also informal, spatially indefinite and practice-driven decision-making processes that existed parallel with the formal ones. The informal decision-making processes, which had participatory qualities, involved a large part of the club’s about 150 leaders. This applied in particular to the coordinators of the club’s 10 sport sections – here labelled as key actors – who acted and functioned as organisational “nodes” in the decision-making processes. These coordinators, but also many other categories of members – especially leaders and athletes (and supportive relatives) – represented, in accordance with Ahrne & Papakosta’s organisational theory, ‘resources’, who occasionally engaged in participatory democratic discussions, negotiations and decisions. A conclusion drawn from this case study is that when informal decision-making processes are included in the analyses, a relatively large number of the club 150 leaders were involved in collective decision-making.

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About the Author

JONNY HJELM is Professor of History at the Department of History, Philosophical and Religious Studies at Umeå University. He is also an associated scholar to Umeå School of Sport Sciences. He has since the late 1980s worked with labor and trade union history research. The last 15 years he has also explored women’s football history and the competition-critical discourse in Swedish sport research (in social sciences and humanities). He is currently leading the research project The sport club as a milieu for democratic fostering and – which represents a new track in his research – Freethinkers. Pro-secular organizations in Sweden 1880-2010.

Searching for the ’How’: Teaching methods in Swedish physical education

by Inger KarleforsHåkan Larsson

Vol. 9 2018, pages 25–44
Published February 23, 2018


Over the last few decades, focus in educational research – as well as in policy – seems to have shifted from teaching to learning. As a result of this, we know little about what different teaching methods are used in the subject, and how. The purpose of this article is to explore how different teaching methods are used in Swedish secondary physical education. Video recorded physical education lessons in eight Swedish secondary schools were used to identify different teaching methods. Kirk’s (1996) elaboration of the Spectrum of teaching styles formed the basis of the analysis. In subsequent interviews, teachers (8) and students (24) were asked questions about teaching and learning in the subject. All of the five methods that Kirk (1996) outlined were identified in the lessons, but they were very unevenly used. The task-based method was the most frequent one, while the guided discovery method was hardly used at all. The impression was that the teachers did not seriously consider the selection of methods in relation to objective, content and group of students. The students, for their part, described a situation where they were often left to their own devices regarding what they were supposed to learn. Based on the analysis, we argue that teachers need guidance to improve and develop their deliberate use of teaching methods in general, and especially student-centred methods. This is necessary if the goals of the subject are to be achievable for all students. We conclude that the marginal focus on teaching methods in physical education is not related to a parallel increase of the interest in student learning in the subject. On the contrary, the low interest in the use of different teaching methods seems rather to be related to a low interest in what students are to learn in the subject.

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About the Authors

HÅKAN LARSSON is a professor of sport sciences, specialising in physical education and sport pedagogy, at The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, in Stockholm, Sweden. Currently, he is also guest professor at Malmö University, Department of Sport Sciences. Since more than a decade he is scientific leader of the research group physical education and sport pedagogy at GIH. His main research interests are about teaching and learning in physical education, and gender and heteronormativity in sport.

INGER KARLEFORS has a PhD in Education. She has worked as a lecturer and researcher at the Department of Education, Umeå university, and the department of Arts, Communication and Education at Luleå University of Technology. Her research has focused youth sports and the school subject Physical Education and Health, and this interest has developed during a career as a youth sports coach and as a PE teacher.

Idrett, innovasjon og sosial inkludering: Fremveksten av Mixed Martial Arts i Norge

by Anne Tjønndal

Vol. 9 2018, pages 1–24
Published January 23, 2018


Sport, Innovation and Social Inclusion: The Emergence of Mixed Martial Arts in Norway

Using social innovation as a theoretical framework, this article investigates who participates in Norwegian Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) clubs; if the emergence of MMA contributes to increased social inclusion in Norwegian sport; and finally, if and how the emergence of MMA can be interpreted as social innovation. These topics are investigated through a quantitative analysis of Norwegian MMA practitioners. Members of the Norwegian Mixed Martial Arts Federation (NMMAF) were recruited for an electronic survey and 369 respondents were included in the analyses. Descriptive analyses along with a linear regression analyses were performed. The results indicate that men between 20–30 years of age dominates as participants in Norwegian MMA clubs. Additionally, the results indicate that women with higher education participate more frequently compared to women with limited education, while the relationship is reversed for men. The article concludes that while the emergence of Mixed Martial Arts in Norway can be described as an innovation process, it is unclear to what degree it can be interpreted as social innovation. The results indicate that the participation patterns in Norwegian MMA clubs reflect existing tendencies in other Norwegian sports, and the MMA does not appear to contribute to increased social inclusion in Norwegian sport today.

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About the Author

ANNE TJØNNDAL is a PhD Research Fellow at the Faculty of Social Science, Nord university, Bodø in Norway. Her PhD dissertation is about innovation for social inclusion in sport.