Tag Archive for Bjørn Tore Johansen

Talentutvikling via studieprogrammet idrettsfag: En retrospektiv studie av unge fotballspilleres opplevelse av å kombinere videregående skole og satsning på en fotballkarriere

by Stig Arve Sæther, Anders Nygaard, Bjørn Tore Johansen & Martin Erikstad

Vol. 12 2021, pages 85–111
Published May 10, 2021


Talent development at upper secondary school: A retrospective study of youth football players experience of combining school and football

The purpose of this study was to gain insight into how young football players experience combining sports-related upper secondary education with being a player at a high national level. More specifically, this study will look at players’ experience of the opportunity to complete a “dual career” (Stambulova & Wylleman, 2015) in the form of time and facilitation of investment in both football and school, and regulation of organized training in the form of deliberate practice (Ericsson et al., 1993) to optimize players’ opportunities for development as football players. The participants consist of eight informants who have all attended a sports study program in upper secondary school and were included in the senior squad of a club in Norwegian top football. The informants were interviewed about their experience of how it affected their development as football players. The results showed that the players’ motives for choosing a sports discipline were mainly based on sporting motives and to a lesser extent school-related, where in many ways they consider the sports program study program only as a tool to prioritize football and increase their commitment to a football career. The players also described a large degree of facilitation for sporting development with a holistic approach, although they sometimes describe large amounts of training, which they perceived as positive for their development, but also as a tough physical strain. The results showed a clear difference in favor of the best players who had a better organized everyday life compared to players with a lower skill level. Even though the school tried to facilitate the school subjects, this arrangement worked, according to the players, somewhat worse than the sporting one. An important function in this context was that the players had a contact person between the club and the school, who arranged between the two parties, to some frustration among the teachers according to the players, who perceived that the facilitation went too far. It may seem that the sports-related fields of study fulfill their purpose of facilitation, but mainly on the basis of the sporting and to a lesser extent in relation to the school subjects, with the exception of the study-specific subjects.

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About the Authors

STIG ARVE SÆTHER is an Associate Professor in sport science at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Sociology and Political science. Main research interests; talent development, youth sport and sport psychology. His largest research project is a longitudinal 10-year follow-up study. Sæther is head of the research group: Skill and Performance Development in Sport and School.

ANDERS NYGAARD has a master’s degree in sport science from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Sociology and Political science. Nygaard is also a semi-professional football player in the OBOS-league club Stjørdals-Blink Sports Club.

BJØRN TORE JOHANSEN, PhD, is a Professor of sport sciences in the Faculty of Health & Sport Sciences, University of Agder. His areas of expertise are sport & exercise psychology, teaching and learning in higher education, and qualitative research methods. He is a member of the research group SEP-HEP (Sport and Exercise Psychology: Health, Education, and Performance).

MARTIN ERIKSTAD is a postdoctoral researcher at Faculty of Health & Sport Sciences at University of Agder. His research interests are centered around factors influencing athletes` development and participation, and covers topics such as expertise development, group dynamics and coaching. Martin is also a member of the research group SEP-HEP.

Perceptions of leadership behavior and the relationship to athletes among Scandinavian coaches

by Eystein Enoksen, Per Göran Fahlström, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Carl-Axel HageskogJens Behrend ChristensenRune Høigaard

Vol. 5 2014, pages 131–147
Published November 25, 2014

From the top: Eystein Enoksen, Per Göran Fahlström, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Carl-Axel Hageskog, Jens Behrend Christensen, Rune Høigaard

From the top: Eystein Enoksen, Per Göran Fahlström, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Carl-Axel Hageskog, Jens Behrend Christensen, Rune Høigaard


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the perceptions of leadership behavior and coach–athlete relationship in Scandinavian coaches. A secondary purpose was to investigate if differences in national sport education, level of coaching and coaching experiences in individual or team sport have an influence on leadership behavior and coach–athlete relationships. One hundred and forty nine coaches at international level or national top level from Denmark, Norway and Sweden participated in this study (134 male and 15 female). The methods of investigation were Chelladurai’s Leadership scale of sport (LSS) (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) and Jowett’s coach–athlete relationship perspective (Jowett & Wyllemann, 2006). The results showed that the most frequent self-reported behavioral components between the described coach–athlete relationship subscales and preferred leadership behavior among Scandinavian top-level coaches were training and instructions, positive feedback and democratic behavior, respectively. The study also revealed a positive coach–athlete relationship between (1) commitment and training and instruction, (2) positive feedback and social support, and (3) between complementarities and training and instruction behavior. A significant difference was found between top coaches in Denmark and Sweden on commitment and complementarity, and more experienced coaches used significantly more training and instruction and social support in their coaching than did less experienced coaches. Coaches in team sports reported more autocratic behavior and less democratic behavior than coaches in individual sports.

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About the Authors

EYSTEIN ENOKSEN (Ph.D.) is a Professor in sport science at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (Norges idrettshøgskole). His Ph.D. thesis focused on talent development in sport with a special focus on drop-out reasons among talented track and field athletes. He has written more than 40 books and his research work includes articles in training science in elite sport, sport coaching and sport leadership. He holds for the moment a personal trainer position for the Norwegian elite sprinters and hurdlers. In 2013 he was awarded “Trainer of the year in track and field”.

PG FAHLSTRÖM is Associate professor in sport science at Linnaeus University. His PhD thesis was in pedagogics and focused on coaches in ice hockey. He holds an academic elite coach diploma and a degree as physical education teacher. He is the President European Association for Sport Management. His research interests include sport coaching, sport leadership, talent identification and talent development in sports. His has recently finished a report on the elite athletes’ perceptions of the end of the sport career. He is currently leading two research projects funded by Swedish Sports Confederation, “Sport choice and specialisation” and “Good sport environments”.

BJØRN TORE JOHANSEN is Associate Professor in sport psychology at the Department of Health and Sport Sciences at University of Agder in Kristiansand, Norway. He has a PhD on the topic “Cognition in Orienteering” from the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences in Oslo back in 1997. He has a background from orienteering as a coach on the national team. He has also been a coach and referee in soccer for more than 15 years. Johansen is currently leader of a research project on the role of top-class referees in Norway.

CARL-AXEL HAGESKOG is professor in Sport Science at Linnaeus University. His experience from tennis as the Swedish Davis Cup Coach 1985-2002 and personal coach for Mats Wilander, Anders Jarryd and Magnus Larsson, all world top players in the period, qualified him for professor on artistic basis. He has got the highest honours of the Sport in The Prince Plaque and Medal in Gold from The King of Sweden. He has an academic degree as physical education teacher. His main focus is building the bridge between the academy and sport – Academy meets Sport.

JENS BEHREND CHRISTENSEN is Associate Professor in sport science, Department of Public Health, University of Aarhus. His main topics include track and field, talent identification, talent development and mentoring in sport. His newest research includes New Trends in Sport, the events and the future developments. He is former National Coach in Combined Events and expert commentator in athletics at the Olympic Games for TV 2 Denmark.

RUNE HØIGAARD (Ph.D.) is Professor in Sport and Exercise Psychology, at the Department of Public Health, Sport and Nutrition at the University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway. In addition, he holds a position as a visiting Professor at the University in Nordland, Bodø, Norway. He has published several books, book chapters, and over 30 refereed articles on sports psychology, group dynamics, coaching, and counseling. He is a former track and field athlete and coach, and now a dedicated recreational cyclist.