Tag Archive for Eivind Å. Skille

Kroppsøving og idrett i Norge – overlappende men distinktive felt

by Eivind Å. Skille & Kjersti Mordal Moen


Vol. 12 2021, pages 135–157
Published October 6, 2021

Abstract

Physical education and sport in Norway – overlapping but distinctive fields

Organized and voluntary sport and the school subject physical education have historically been tightly interwoven in Norway. In this study, organized and voluntary sport and physical education are considered as two fields as described by Bourdieu, in the search for answering the research question: How can physical education and sport be understood as overlapping and distinctive fields? In order to answer the question, we analysed the two last steering documents in each field; the curriculum in physical education from 2015 and 2020, and the sport policy documents of 2015 and 2019 (the latter referred to as a long-term plan) from The Norwegian Confederation of Sports.

The two main findings of the analysis are, first, that the historical relationship where sport is the dominant part is still identifiable in the contemporary steering documents. The overlaps between the fields can be explained by several and interdependent causes: one is that many of the same actors operate in both fields – sports people are physical education teachers and physical education teacher educators; moreover, the establishment of the physical education field was initiated by powerful people in the sport field. In that respect, it has been a mode of doxa that physical education to a large degree has resembled sport. However, second, we identified an emancipation process in the field of physical education; there are formulations in the steering documents supported by other research, indicating heterodoxic discussions within the physical education field, leading to change. All in all, we identified two fields with various levels of maturity.


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About the Authors

EIVIND Å. SKILLE is Professor of Sport Sociology with the Section for sports and physical education, Department of public health and sport sciences, Faculty of social and health sciences, Inland Norway university of applied sciences. Skille teaches and researches in sport policy and politics, sport organization and organizing, and sports participation. He serves on the advisory board of the International Sociology of Sport Association, the Editorial boards of International Review for the Sociology of Sport and the International Journal of Sports Policy and Politics. Recently, he has focused his research into Sámi (an Indigenous people of the North Calotte) sports, and the national culture of Norwegian elite sports.

KJERSTI MORDAL MOEN is Professor in Physical Education at the Section for sports and physical education, Department of public health and sport sciences, Faculty of social and health sciences, Inland Norway university of applied sciences (INN). Moen teaches at the Physical Education Teacher Education programme (PETE), and do research in the field of PETE and PE. She is leading the research group «Teaching and Learning in Physical Education” at INN, and she serves on the Editorial board in Journal for research in arts and sports education.

National and Organizational Culture in Norwegian Elite Sport: The Account of National Handball Head Coaches

by Eivind Å. Skille, Per Øystein Hansen, Frank Abrahamsen & Stiliani “Ani” Chroni


Vol. 11 2020, pages 93–116
Published October 21, 2020

Abstract

The present study looks at the organizational culture of Norwegian elite sport which we capture as the meeting point of the national and elite sport cultures. Two successful national teams, the women’s and men’s handball are the point of departure. The selected elite sport contexts are apparently similar but at the same time distinctive. Informed by theories of culture and high reliability organizations, we analyzed in depth semi-structured interviews with the national team coaches and found that their organizational cultures were characterized by three common elements: a process-oriented approach, an athlete-centered approach, and a value-based approach towards development. Variations between teams were noticed, such as how the athletes partake in the team’s value-anchoring processes. Overall, we learned that at the international level results can be achieved even when embracing, and performing, under humanistic and social-democratic values, which deviates significantly from the commonly embraced win-at-all-costs approach. Norwegian elite sport culture appears to exemplify this cultural approach by actively employing a value-system in the development of its athletes, teams and sport. In that respect, the study contributes to the international elite sport organization literature as it relates daily practices with the overall culture theory and the specific theory of high reliability organizations. The study provides a detailed account of how national Norwegian values (and further overarching Scandinavian values) pair up with elite sport demands, in team and backstage practices within two elite sport contexts.


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About the Authors

EIVIND Å. SKILLE is Dr. Scient. and professor of sport sociology with the Section for sports and physical education, Department of public health and sport sciences, Faculty of social and health sciences, Inland Norway university of applied sciences. Skille teaches and researches in sport policy and politics, sport organization and organizing, and sports participation. Recently, he has focused his research into Sámi (an Indigenous people of the North Calotte) sport. Skille serves at the advisory board of the International Sociology of Sports Association (ISSA).

PER ØYSTEIN HANSEN is Dr.Scient and associate professor of sport mangement and head of the Section for sports and physical education, Department of public health and sport sciences, Faculty of social and health sciences, Inland Norway university of applied sciences. Hansen is also associate professor II at the Department of sport and social sciences at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. He teaches and researches subjects related to organization and leadership in and of elite sports from organizational sociology perspectives.

FRANK EIRIK ABRAHAMSEN, PhD, works at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, teaching and researching sport psychology and coaching. His special interest is in elite sport and talent development. This is no surprise, as he worked 10 years for the Olympic training center in Norway, to date – delivering sport psychology services to more than 50 national teams. In 2020 he travelled with the national chefs’ teams in the Culinary Olympics in Stuttgart, where for instance the senior team won the championship. Much of his latest publications have focused on talent development environments and leadership in elite performance.

STILIANI “ANI” CHRONI, Ph.D., is professor of sport psychology, pedagogy and sport coaching with the Elverum section of sports and physical education at Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (iNN). Ani teaches applied sport psychology topics while her research focuses on athletes’ and coaches’ performance psychology matters. She is leading the Sport & Social Sciences Research Group for iNN and serves in the Research and Development Committee of the Association of Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) as well as past-president of the global NGO WomenSport International (WSI).

From Community Based Identities to Individual Benefits for Volunteers: A Comparison of Three Sporting Events

by Elsa Kristiansen, Eivind Å. SkilleDag Vidar Hanstad


Vol. 5 2014, pages 47–68. Published May 28, 2014

elsa-eivind-dagvidarAbstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify different types of volunteers at three major sporting events: the 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games in Innsbruck, Austria; the 2012 GöteborgsVarvet (a half-marathon race), Sweden; and the 2012 FIS World Ski Flying Championships in Vikersund, Norway. Altogether, 37 volunteers were interviewed, and Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field, as well as modernization theories, were employed in the analyses. Data revealed that all three groups of volunteers had different motives for volunteer work. The young, international volunteers at the Winter Youth Olympic Games were concerned with learning and gaining experience; the volunteers at Vikersund were motivated by the commitment to the local community; while the volunteers at GöteborgsVarvet volunteered for their local sport club. In conclusion, we argue that there is an increased complexity of volunteer patterns. Theoretically speaking, there is a difference between subfields of volunteering which fit various individual habitus. Clearly, modern volunteers, particularly young people, extend the complexity of the sport field and the volunteering field.


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About the Authors

ELSA KRISTIANSEN is a Postdoctoral fellow at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences. She has investigated the impact of organizational issues and especially the effect of media coverage on elite athletes’ perceptions of stress, in addition to being involved in an international project examining the Youth Olympic Games (YOG). She is currently investigating the complex network of intertwining relationships in which young athletes are involved, and how these relationships influence the development of these young athletes. Her latest publications include Kristiansen, E., (in press).Competing for culture: Young Olympians’ narratives from the first winter Youth Olympic Games. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2012.756259; Kristiansen, E., & Parent, M. M. (2014). Athletes, their families and team officials: Sources of support and stressors. In D. V. Hanstad, M. M. Parent, & B. Houlihan (Eds.), The Youth Olympic Games (pp. 106–121). Oxon: Routledge; and Kristiansen, E., & Lines, G. (2014). Media. In A. Papannnoiu, & D. Hackfort, (Eds), Companion to sport and exercise psychology: Global perspectives and fundamental concepts (pp. 236-259). New York: Taylor & Francis.

EIVIND Å. SKILLE is Professor with the Department of Sport at the Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway. Eivind is a sport sociologist and his main research interests are sport policy, sport organization, and sport participation. Much of his work has focused on the relationship between the state’s sport policy making and the possibilities and constraints for implementation of this policy through the voluntary sport organizations. His latest publications include Idrettslaget – helseprodusent eller trivselsarena? (2012, Oplandske Bokforlag), The Conventions of Sport Clubs: Enabling and Constraining the Implementation of Social Goods Through Sport’ (2011, Sport, Education and Society, 16 (2): 253-265), and ‘Sport for all in Scandinavia: sport policy and participation in Norway, Sweden and Denmark’ (2011, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3 (3): 327-340)

DAG VIDAR HANSTAD is Associate Professor in sport management and head of the Department of Cultural and Social Studies at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences in Oslo. He has a PhD on the topic “Anti-Doping in Sport. A Study of Policy Development since 1998”. He was previously Sport Editor for the leading Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten. He has also background from handball as a player on the national team and trainer at highest level. His research interests include events, volunteerism, anti-doping and media. Hanstad is currently leader of a research project on the Youth Olympic Games.


The relationship between adolescent sport participation and lifelong participation in physical activity in Norway: A Critical Analysis

by Eivind Å. Skille & Tor Solbakken


Vol. 5 2014, pages 25–45
Published April 15, 2014

skille-solbakkenAbstract

In this paper, the relationship between adolescent sport participation and lifelong participation in physical activity (LLP) is scrutinized, in order to explain why people are active later in life. Literature treating the relationship between sport participation during adolescence was compared to literature into characteristics of Norwegian adolescent sport. Organized and competitive sport does not facilitate lifelong continuation in physical activity, due to its characteristics of sport: adolescents often drop out from sport, adolescents specializes in one sport instead of keeping or developing a broad repertoire for physical activity, and adolescents do not feel autonomous and free in a sport setting as it is adult controlled. Assisted by Bourdieu’s theory of field and habitus, the analysis indicates that habitus (including characteristics of social class) better explains LLP than does adolescent sport participation. It is proposed that habitus can be seen as the intermediate mechanism that explains both adolescent sport participation and LLP (instead of seeing the former explaining the latter).


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About the Author(s)

EIVIND Å. SKILLE is Professor with the Department of Sport at the Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway. Eivind is a sport sociologist and his main research interests are sport policy, sport organization, and sport participation. Much of his work has focused on the relationship between the state’s sport policy making and the possibilities and constraints for implementation of this policy through the voluntary sport organizations. His latest publications include Idrettslaget – helseprodusent eller trivselsarena? (2012, Oplandske Bokforlag), The Conventions of Sport Clubs: Enabling and Constraining the Implementation of Social Goods Through Sport’ (2011, Sport, Education and Society, 16 (2): 253-265), and ‘Sport for all in Scandinavia: sport policy and participation in Norway, Sweden and Denmark’ (2011, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3 (3): 327-340).

TOR SOLBAKKEN is associate professor of sport and physical education at Hedmark University College, department of Sport and Active Lifestyle.  His approach to research and development projects can be described as multidimensional with main focus on applied psychology  (learning strategies) and sport sociology (effects of sport participation). His latest publication in the field og sport sociology  is also in cooperation with professor Eivind Skille,  Sport as a vehicle for health promotion – an analysis of Norwegian policy documents (2011, Critical Public Health, 21: 191-202). Apart from the academic work, he is continuously involved as coach related to cross country skiing and biathlon at different levels.

Ethno-politics and state sport policy: The case of how the Sámi Sport Association–Norway challenged the Norwegian onfederation of sport’s monopoly for state subsidies to sport

by Eivind Å. Skille


Vol. 3 2012, pages 143–165
Published September 19, 2012

eivind_small120919Abstract

This paper investigates how the Sámi Sport Association of Norway (SVL-N), with the support of the Sámi Parliament in Norway, challenged the Norwegian confederation of sport’s (NIF) monopoly to state funding to sport. Through document analysis of correspondence between the Ministry of Culture and the Sámi Parliament, the Sámi sport Association (SVL-N) and the Norwegian confederation of sports, it was revealed how the Ministry of Culture changed its opinion from wanting to keep NIF’s monopoly to willingly support also SVL-N with state subsidies to sport. Applying the theoretical perspective of Bourdieu, it is pointed out how the mode of heterodoxy which is needed to create change in a political and organizational field, such as the Norwegian field of sport policy and organization which has traditionally been based on the relationship between the Ministry of Culture and NIF, was developed. Employing the perspective of Brubaker, it is pointed out how this heterodoxy was achieved by the utilization of ethno-political entrepreneurs such as the president of the Sámi parliament.


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About the Author

EIVIND Å. SKILLE is Professor with the Department of Culture and Society at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. Eivind is a sport sociologist and his main research interests are within sport policy, sport organization, and sport participation. Much of his work has focused on the relationship between the state’s sport policy making and the possibilities and constraints for implementation of this policy through the voluntary sport organizations. His latest publications include Idrettslaget – helseprodusent eller trivselsarena? (2012, Oplandske Bokforlag), The Conventions of Sport Clubs: Enabling and Constraining the Implementation of Social Goods Through Sport’ (2011, Sport, Education and Society, 16 (2): 253-265), and ‘Sport for all in Scandinavia: sport policy and participation in Norway, Sweden and Denmark’ (2011, International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 3 (3): 327-340).

Does Elite Sport Develop Mass Sport? A Norwegian Case Study

by Dag Vidar Hanstad & Eivind Å. Skille


Vol. 1 2010, pages 51–68
Published March 31, 2010

hanstad-skilleAbstract

The notion that elite sport generates mass sport,seems to be a social fact among many and influential members of the society. The issue is, however, under-researched, and the little research which actually exists does not confirm a causal link. In this article, we take as a point of departure the case of Norwegian biathlon, and its development, both as elite sport and mass sport, to nuance the picture. We are not guided by any particular theory, but believe in a thick description of the empirical case in order to understand it. Therefore a mixture of methods is applied: document analysis, statistics and interviews. The article shows how increased income from elite performance makes it possible for a sport federation to make strategies and prioritize incentives for recruitment of mass participants. At the same time, it is evident that the relationship between elite sport and mass sport is best understood as a complexity of figurations where economic, strategic and other aspects interplay. In sum, elite sport does not generate mass sport per se, but it may contribute indirectly. In the end, it is critically reminded that mass sport is not prioritized to elite sport; apparently, the former is “prioritized” only when the latter is prioritized first.


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About the Authors

DAG VIDAR HANSTAD is PhD student at the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo.

EIVIND Å. SKILLE is teacher and sport studies researcher at Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.